Isomers and Their Type

Isomers are different molecules that have the same molecular formula but are structurally different. As a result, isomers have the same number of atoms for each element, but their atomic arrangement varies. Despite having the same molecular formula, the physical properties of each molecule can vary, especially if the functional groups associated with each molecule differ. Isomerization is the process of converting one molecule with identical atoms into another molecule with identical atoms. Depending on whether the bond energy of the configurations is comparable, this may or may not occur spontaneously.

Types of Isomers

The two main types of isomerism are structural or constitutional isomerism, which occurs when the bonds between the atoms differ, and stereoisomerism or spatial isomerism, which occurs when the bonds are the same but the relative positions of the atoms differ.

Structural Isomers

Isomers differ from one another in structural isomerismalso known as constitutional isomers, because their constituent atoms are linked in different ways and sequences. The IUPAC names for structural isomers differ.

Chain isomers (e.g., hydrocarbon chains with different branching patterns); position isomers (which differ based on the positioning of a functional group on the chain); functional group isomers (in which a functional group is further divided into different functional groups); and skeletal isomers (which exhibit different carbon chains) are examples of structural isomers. A tautomer is another type of structural isomer. Tautomers spontaneously interconvert between two structural isomers, and their properties vary depending on the isoform.


Stereoisomers are isomers that have the same bond structure but differ in the geometric position of the functional groups and atoms. Enantiomers, diastereomers, and conformational isomers are examples of stereoisomers. Enantiomers are mirror images with chiral centres that cannot be superimposed. Diastereomers are not mirrored images with or without chiral centres. Different rotations occur around single bonds in conformational isomers.

Meso compounds are examples of stereoisomers.

Conformational Isomers (conformers)

Isomers can be classified using conformation. Enantiomers, diastereomers, and rotamers are all examples of conformers.

There are several methods for identifying stereoisomers, including cis-trans and E/Z.

Examples of Isomers

A few examples of isomers are as follows:

  • Methoxyethane and Propanol –

C3H8O is a chemical structure that exists as several propanol isomers, as well as the isomer methoxy ethane.

  • Methylacetylene and Allene –

C3H4 isomers include methyl acetylene and allene, which differ based on the type of bonding exhibited by the molecules.

  • Fulminate and Cyanate –

Isomers of CNO include fulminate and cyanate.

  • Glucose and Fructose –

C6H12O6 isomers include glucose and fructose, which differ based on the position of a double-bonded O atom.

  • Meso Compounds

Importance of Isomers

Since enzymes prefer one isomer over another, isomers are especially important in nutrition and medicine, and enantiomers are of particular concern because they may have distinct biological activities. Many preparative procedures result in an equal mixture of both enantiomeric forms. In some cases, chiral stationary phases are used to separate the enantiomers. They can also be separated by forming diastereomeric salts. Enantioselective synthesis has also been developed in other cases.

As an example of an inorganic compound, cisplatin is an important drug used in cancer chemotherapy, whereas the trans isomer (transplatin) has no pharmacological activity.

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How To Succeed In Exams? – A Small Guide

‘Learn and Write’, have you heard this phrase? We have listened to this phrase since our childhood. Our education is not only about learning things. An examination will make us work towards our goal and help us refurbish our memories. In this article, let us look into the techniques for writing exams (เทคนิค การ ทํา ข้อสอบ writing, which is the term in Thai). Let us read more about writing IELTS examinations and the benefits. 

IELTS is an examination to analyze the proficiency of your English language. This examination is one of the famous exams and IELTS for students pursuing their studies abroad. 

Competitive Exams

IELTS is one of the competitive exams. If you know the techniques for writing exams, you will crack IELTS. Everyone will have a fear when they approach competitive exams. But, you have to prepare for the competitive exams with concentration and focus. Instead of concentrating on the marks, the aspirants should learn advanced techniques. Here are the few steps to follow while you write your competitive exams,

  • IETLS has writing tasks. The two writing jobs will interest the aspirants.
  • The first writing task will ask aspirants to drawbars and graphs for the assessments.
  • An aspirant should understand the exam patterns. Every section is significant to crack the examination. 

Tips For Cracking IELTS

We don’t have any advanced tips or measures to crack IELTS examinations. The exam tips are simple and easy to follow. Let us look into the IETLS exam tips to breakfast:

  • An aspirant should understand the questions. When you write a section, your answers should be appropriate.
  • The aspirants will have many commands in task two. Everyone should know commands and read them twice before answering.
  • Task two will ask aspirants to solve the problems. The problems are easy to resolve when you analyze them.

What Is Strategy?

Do you have an exam strategy? An aspirant should have a plan to write the exams. Here are the following questions you should have in your mind,

  • What is the main idea of this question?
  • Does this paragraph have supporting details?
  • How should I address the problems?

Final Word

Apart from the above ideas, the aspirants should answer direct questions. When you beat around the bush for the answers, the examiners will get confused. 

The IELTS aspirants should concentrate on not repeating the words, choosing appropriate words, and double-checking. These are the techniques for writing exams and cracking them easily.

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Quick Checklist To Join Best Course In English

Imagine you are up for the job interview and unable to converse fluently despite having all the required education. Lack of knowledge in English conversation or fumbling while talking compels you always to express yourself in front of people or sometimes stumble your career. So, if you are planning to join any Course English (คอส ภาษา อังกฤษ, which is the term in Thai) for boosting to your language learning, you must make a quick checklist so that your learning can go in the right direction. 

Know Your Level

Yes, this is the first and foremost step before joining any course in English. As a learner, you should know your level. For example, if you are unknown about the principles of grammar, you should join the beginner level but go for the advanced level if you have enough knowledge about the rules. To better understand English, you should clear the basic concept of English. So consider it as your first step!

Practice Session

Now at the second level, you should focus upon the practice sessions. It means how much regular practice or the group practice opportunity you are getting. Proper debates and informal talks with your group member improve your ability to think in English, and that’s, I am sure, the important step to follow. No matter how well versed you are with your theoretical knowledge, without doing proper conversational practice, nothing will be gained, so it should be in your prior checklist. 

Audio Availability

Thirdly, if you are joining any Course English or learning it independently, listening to the English conversational, talks, good speeches, and interviews sessions enhance your world power and teach you how to structure the sentences. Before joining the class, they are providing quality materials related to English talks interviews. Besides it, you listen to good English conversational conversations to boost your thinking ability. 

Focus On LSRW

Listening, speaking, reading, and writing are the four basic factors based on what you learn in proper conversation. As a learner of English, you must try to keep all these four factors in your mind because the pillar of English stands on this ground. Make sure that the Course English that you are going to join focuses on this. Try to listen properly, speak confidently, read loudly, and write wonderfully.


So here you see the quick checklist that you should carry in your mind before joining any of the courses, so enjoy your English!

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GRE At-Home or In-Person Test | Which One Should You Choose?

If you’ve decided to do a master’s degree abroad, you might already know that a GRE score is an important admission requirement. Most universities abroad and some in India use the GRE entrance test as a way to determine whether you are a good fit for their programmes. Now, due to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, ETS is providing an option for taking the test from home, and a lot of aspirants are opting for at-home tests. So, what is the difference between both tests? Which one should you take? Read on to find out. 

GRE At-Home vs GRE Test-center Test

The only major difference between the two forms of the test is the way it is delivered. Rest of the factors such as pattern, scoring, time, etc. are all similar. GRE Online is introduced as a way to make sure that your higher study plans are not hindered by a pandemic, not as a replacement to the test-center exam. 

The registration process and eligibility criteria for both formats are the same. To register, first, you need to go to the GRE official website and create ‘My GRE Account’. Here you have to fill in your personal details such as Name, Address, Date of Birth, Phone Number, etc. After that, you’ll get the option to select your preferred form of test: GRE General Test or GRE Subject Test, and location preference as well as available dates. Once you fill in all the relevant details, you can pay a GRE registration fee of $205. 

On the other hand, the GRE At Home test and In Person test differs in terms of flexibility and availability. GRE At Home is available almost all days, at any time of your choice. No travel is required as you’ll be attempting the test from your home mostly. Whereas, the GRE test centers, as well as the dates, are subject to availability. More so, you will have to travel to a center for giving the exam. At the GRE home test, you are allowed to take the exam on your personal computer, whereas in the test center you might’ve to attempt the test from a system assigned to you. 

When it comes to scoring, both GRE online and test center exams have the same format. The  Quantitative and Verbal Reasoning sections are scored on a scale of 130-170, and Analytical Writing is scored on a range of 0-6. Besides, in both formats, your final score will be based on your performance in the Verbal and Quant sections. 

Both GRE At-Home and Online tests require thorough preparation. The best way to study effectively is by creating a study plan. A well-crafted plan organizes your study time and helps you learn effectively. You should devote ample time to learn and practice the concepts asked in the exam to score exceptionally well and impress the admission committee of your dream university. 

Deciding on whether to take an At-Home test or an In-Person test is a personal decision. However, before finalizing one, go through the pros and cons of both and then make an informed decision. Good luck!

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